His father sent him in his sixteenth year to the gymnasium at Lubeck, where he became so much interested in ancient languages that he abandoned his idea of a legal career and resolved to devote himself to the study of theology. A new type of theology made its appearance at the opening of the 16th century, in sharp contrast with the Aristotelian scholasticism of the Thomists and Scotists. A statement may be true in philosophy and false in theology, or vice versa. Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology. His ardour for historical studies was further stimulated by Schlozer, when Muller went (1769) to the university of Gottingen, nominally to study theology. Summary . In 1600 he was made rector of the high school at Dort, and devoted himself to philology and historical theology. All these have faculties of letters and law, and San Marcos has in addition faculties of theology, medicine, mathematics and science, philosophy and administrative and political economy. The book is not what moderns (schooled unconsciously in post-Reformation developments of Thomist ideas) expect under the name of natural theology. Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures. In 1892 Lord Salisbury made him Regius Professor of Pastoral Theology of Oxford; and after a long period of delicate health he died at Christ Church on the 8th of June 1903. Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and P. Schaff, Germany: its Universities and Theology (1857). Lyman Beecher's published works include: A Plea for the West (1835), Views in Theology (1836), and various sermons; his Collected Works were published at Boston in 1852 in 3 vols. He studied theology at Halle and GÃ¶ttingen. Calamy was an active member in the Westminster assembly of divines, and, refusing to advance to Congregationalism, found in Presbyterianism the middle course which best suited his views of theology and church government. Appointed superintendent of the cathedral school of his native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, and to introduce that dialectic development of theology which is designated the scholastic. Meanwhile Ramus, as graduate of the university, had opened courses of lectures; but his audacities drew upon him the hostility of the conservative party in philosophy and theology. In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie and Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proved "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea" in flagrant contradiction to the distinctive features of contemporary civilization. In 1890 appeared The Development of Theology since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1825, which was written for publication in England. He also attended lectures in theology, but, a relative having persuaded him to change his subject, he studied medicine for two years. Its immediate occasion was the disputation at Heidelberg (1568) for the doctorate of theology by George Wither or Withers, an English Puritan (subsequently archdeacon of Colchester), silenced (1565) at Bury St Edmunds by Archbishop Parker. Sentence Examples. Prantl says that there is no such thing as philosophy in the middle ages; there are only logic and theology. The interpolation really witnessed to a deep-lying difference between Eastern and Western theology. Prolegomena: Literally means “first word.” Deals with the _____ _____ of theology such as theological methodology, sources, and reasons for the study of theology. The only man who tried to shake off the theological influence of Origen was Marcellus of Ancyra, who did not succeed in producing any lasting effect on theology. After all, the metaphysical theology of Descartes, however essential in his own eyes, serves chiefly as the ground for constructing his theory of man and of the universe. From this vantage-ground Ritschl criticizes the use of Aristotelianism and speculative philosophy in scholastic and Protestant theology. From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism. (pp. No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth. In 1810 he became professor extraordinarius in theology, and in 1811 ordinarius, at the university of Halle, where, in spite of many offers of high preferment elsewhere, he spent the rest of his life. He specializes in Mariology, which is the theology of Mary. 446-458. There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people. Others were pulled from our literature database. He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena. use "theology" in a sentence Two guys almost started fighting after a particularly heated exchange in my theology seminar last night. At the same time the Jews of the Dispersion had to some extent shaken off the exclusiveness of their old political relations and were prepared to compare and contrast their old territorial theology with cosmopolitan culture. Herrmann reject natural theology outright in favour of revelation - a striking external parallel to early Socinianism. With this equipment she undertook, and carried through, a world-mission on a grand scale. What is known as the "Oberlin Theology" (no longer identified with the college) centred in the teaching of Charles Grandison Finney (1792-1875), who became professor of theology in 1835 and was Mahan's successor in the presidency (1851-1866). Examples of 'theology' in a sentence theology. Walter Addison of Maryland, and in Princeton; was ordained deacon in 1811 and priest in 1814; and preached both in the Stone Chapel, Millwood, and in Christ Church, Alexandria, for some time. Like John of Damascus, Peter Lombard divided his subject into four parts, beginning with the doctrine of God the Trinity. The writings of Origen consist of letters, and of works in textual criticism, exegesis, apologetics, dogmatic and practical theology. At Copenhagen he was lektor in theology in 1838, professor extraordinarius in 1840, court preacher also in 1845, and professor ordinarius in 1850. It was simply accepted by him in a broad way as the orthodox philosophic doctrine, and the doctrine which, as a sagacious churchman, he perceived to be most in harmony with Christian theology. The limits within which the reason may be used have been laid down differently in different churches and periods of thought: on the whole, modern Christianity, especially in the Protestant churches, tends to allow to reason a wide field, reserving, however, as the sphere of faith the ultimate (supernatural) truths of theology. Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general. Schmalkalden, drawn up by Luther in 1536, Luther's catechisms, and the Formula of Concord which was an attempt to settle doctrinal divisions promulgated in 1580, sum up what is called " the confessional theology of Lutheranism.". Thus the essence of Ritschl's work is systematic theology. No Protestant, of course, can agree with Roman Catholic theology that (supernatural) faith is an obedient assent to church authority and the mysteries it dictates. 1), were interpreted by the Christian Fathers as referring to the passage in Isaiah; whence, in Christian theology, Lucifer came to be regarded as the name of Satan before his fill. At, or only a very little beyond, the usual age he entered the recently (1348) founded university of Prague, where he became bachelor of arts in 1393, bachelor of theology in 1394, and master of arts in 1396. His translation of Georg Christian Knapp's Christian Theology (1831-1833) was long used as a text-book in American theological seminaries. 1803, and at the close of his preliminary studies at the seminary of Blaubeuren entered the university of Tubingen in 1821 as a student of evangelical theology. Lanfranc brought law and discipline; Anselm brought theology and philosophy. Theology definition: Theology is the study of the nature of God and of religion and religious beliefs . Theology, philosophically oriented discipline of religious speculation and apologetics that is traditionally restricted, because of its origins and format, to Christianity but that may also encompass, because of its themes, other religions, including especially Islam and Judaism.The themes of theology include God, humanity, the world, salvation, and eschatology (the study of last times). He took the degree of doctor of theology, and seems to have received the complimentary title of doctor mirabilis. Covenant theology is a framework for biblical interpretation, informed by exegetical, biblical, and systematic theology, that recognizes that the redemptive history revealed in Scripture is explicitly articulated through a succession of covenants (Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, and New), thus providing an organizing principle for biblical theology. Some time afterwards he was appointed a canon of the collegiate church, and at first contended vigorously for the scholastic theology as against the doctrines of the Reformers. Influenced by the Jesuit John Ramirez he entered the Society of Jesus in 1564, and after teaching philosophy at Segovia, taught theology at Valladolid, at Alcala, at Salamanca, and at Rome successively. An enthusiastic disciple of Descartes, he wrote several works in philosophy and theology, which by their freedom of thought aroused considerable hostility. A few names were, however, distinguished in 1711 theology, philology and poetry. Natural Theology, i.; Natural Theology, ii. 32. Theology sentence examples. He had considerable knowledge of theology, took a prominent part in the theological controversies of the time, and was responsible for the addition of the clause filioque to the Nicene Creed. There are also notices of the leading systems in Milman's History of Latin Christianity; and the same writers are considered from the theological side in many works devoted to theology, and the history of dogma. Struck with young Amyraut's ability and culture, they both urged him to change from law to theology. Some theologians have claimed that theologygives a justification of religion. Even in the nominalistic epoch we have Raymond of Sabunde's Natural Theology (according to the article in Herzog-Hauck, not the title of the oldest Paris MS., but found in later MSS. A theological sentence does its proper work just to the extent it makes the familiar strange. The sixties were a time of theological ferment. He became (1649) professor of philosophy and theology at Herborn, but subsequently (1651), in consequence of the jealousy of his colleagues, accepted an invitation to a similar post at Duisburg,, where he died on the 31st of January 1665. In 1629 he tions of the faith such as the Athanasian Creed published a confession in which he attempted to incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of Eastern traditional theology. Their theological teaching is misty and perplexing; their earliest writings contain no error, and the hymns of their great St Ephrem, still sung in their services, are positively antagonistic to "Nestorianism"; their theology dating from the schism is not so satisfactory. The earliest of his writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their own request and for their spiritual edification. He observes with truth that Natural Theology, if you remove from it the idea of subordination to Christianity as (claiming to be) a special revelation, tends to pass into a philosophy of religion. He was denounced by the pope himself in an apostolic brief of the rlth of December 1862, and students of theology were forbidden to attend his lectures. Current religious quarterlies are the Chicago American Journal of Theology and the Oberlin Bibliotheca Sacra. The union of philosophy and theology is the mark of the middle ages, but in Occam their severance is complete. The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. Hence " negative theology," which ascends from the creature to God by dropping one after another every determinate predicate, leads us nearest to the: truth. In his studies he had come under the influence of Schleiermacher, Hegel and Franz Baader; but he was a man of independent mind, and developed a peculiar speculative theology which showed a disposition towards mysticism and theosophy. 2. 1 The study of the nature of God and religious belief. Subfields of Theology include: Biblical Studies is the academic application of diverse disciplines to the study of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures. In 1257, along with his friend Bonaventura, he was created doctor of theology, and began to give courses of lectures upon this subject in Paris, and also in Rome and other towns in Italy. while holding the chair of Greek, was appointed extraordinary professor of theology, and gave exegetical lectures on the New Testament. He had a wide metaphysical and philosophical knowledge which he applied to the history of theology. After the Disruption in 1843, and the formation of the Free Church, New College was founded in connexion with it for training students in theology. "Without it," he emphatically says, "there can be no theology; it can only thrive in the calmness of a soul consecrated to God.". In 1245 Albertus was called to Paris, and there Aquinas followed him, and remained with him for three years, at the end of which he graduated as bachelor of theology. " In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology. PETER DENS (1690-1775), Belgian Roman Catholic theologian, was born at Boom near Antwerp. As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. b : a distinctive body of theological opinion Catholic theology. The work was intended to contain an abstract of the Opus Majus, an account of the principal vices of theology, and treatises on speculative and practical alchemy. Taylorism, sometimes called the "New Haven" theology, was an attempt to defend Calvinism from Arminian attacks, and the defence itself was accused of Arminianism and Pelagianism by A. After studying at Konigsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius. Graduating from Harvard in 1841, he was a schoolmaster for two years, studied theology at the Harvard Divinity School, and was pastor in1847-1850of the First Religious Society (Unitarian) of Newburyport, Massachusetts, and of the Free Church at Worcester in 1852-1858. The descendant of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides as well as with the Talmud. On his return he wrote a long article on "Recent Scottish Theology" for the Presbyterian and Reformed Review, for which he read over every theological work of note published in Scotland during the preceding half-century. There are five kinds of faculties: medicine, letters, science, law and Protestant theology. 1234), also a great Talmudist, wrote in Arabic Ma`aseh Yerushalmi, on oaths, and Kitab al-Kifayah, theology. Passing to the university of Gottingen he took his degree in classical philology and ancient history, but the bent of his mind was definitely towards the philosophical side of theology. He made it one of the aims of his life to free politics and jurisprudence from the control of theology, and fought bravely and consistently for freedom of thought and speech on religious matters. To attach a clear and definite meaning to the Cartesian doctrine of God, to show how much of it comes from the Christian theology and how much from the logic of idealism, how far the conception of a personal being as creator and preserver mingles with the pantheistic conception of an infinite and perfect something which is all in all, would be to go beyond Descartes and to ask for a solution of difficulties of which he was 1 Ouvres, vi. That is the premise of what is known as narrative theology. 23-43) treats of the relation between philosophy and theology. Occam denied the title of a science to theology, emphasizing, like Scotus, its practical character. Thus the Hellenistic doctrine of personal revelation could be combined with the Jewish tradition of a complete theology revealed to a special people. He graduated at Yale in 1767, studied theology under the Rev. Recognizing a supernatural element in the Bible, he nevertheless allowed to the full the critical exercise of reason in the interpretation of its dogmas (cp. The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom. Just as prolonged and stubborn is the struggle now proceeding between the old and the new conception of history, and theology in the same way stands on guard for the old view, and accuses the new view of subverting revelation. It is a systematic compilation of theology, written around 1150; it derives its name from the sententiae or authoritative statements on biblical passages that it gathered together. John Smalley (1734-1820) at Berlin, Connecticut, and was licensed to preach in 1769. Then came his deliverances upon undecided points in theology, in his XII. The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality. "He was perhaps the most learned and able theologian after Alcuin, as well versed in Greek theology as he was familiar with Augustinianism, a comprehensive genius, who felt the liveliest desire to harmonize theory and practice, and at the same time give due weight to tradition" (Harnack). It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. In 1853 he became professor extraordinarius of theology at Leiden, and in 1855 full professor. The pope appointed Faber to teach Holy Scripture, and Laynez scholastic theology, in the university of the Sapienza. These confessions teach the root idea of Calvin's theology, the immeasurable awfulness of God, His eternity, and the immutability of His decrees. It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will. The first deals with mere party questions without sincerity and without depth; and the second, composed as an amusement in retirement without any serious preparation, in their attacks on metaphysics and theology and in their feeble deism present no originality and carry no conviction. Here the son received his education, until in 1595 he entered the university of Leiden, where he became the lifelong friend of Hugo Grotius, and studied classics, Hebrew, church history and theology. noun that branch of theology of which the aim is to reduce all revealed truth to a series of statements that together shall constitute an organized whole. Requests for funding theological reflection need to be stimulated. In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine. Andrewes's other works occupy eight volumes in the Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology (1841-1854). In 1846 Riemann entered himself as a student of philology and theology in the university of GÃ¶ttingen. principal professor of theology at Coimbra. (fn3) Every house of the Order had two learned brethren, one learned in the law, one in theology. He had, however, already begun to look sourly upon Aristotle and the current scholastic theology, which he believed hid the simple truth of the gospel and the desperate state of mankind, who were taught a vain reliance upon outward works and ceremonies, when the only safety lay in throwing oneself on God's mercy. In1834-1837he edited the newly-established Literary and Theological Review, in which he opposed the "New Haven" theology. In declaring the supreme doctrines of Christianity to be mysteries above reason, he marks off a lower region where reason is to reign; the study of that lower region may well be called, as later centuries have called it, Natural Theology; and as such it presents strong intuitionalist affinities. as "remarkable, although little known," Unparteiische Kirchenand Ketzerhistorie, in which he has been thought by some to show more impartiality towards heresy than towards the Church (cp. In 1851 he was made professor of moral philosophy at St Edmund's College, Ware, and was advanced to the chair of dogmatic theology in 1852. His moderation, good sense, wisdom, temper, firmness and erudition made him as successful in this position as he had been when professor of theology, and he speedily surrounded himself with a band of scholarly young men. trans., Paulinism: a Contribution to the History of Primitive Christian Theology, 2 vols., 1873, &c.). 1861) of the Theological Seminary, especially in President King's Reconstruction in Theology (1901); Theology and the Social Consciousness (1902); The Seeming Unreality of the Spiritual Life (1908) and The Laws of Friendship - Human and Divine (1909). Although the theology of Origen exerted a considerable influence as a whole in the two following centuries, it certainly lost nothing by the circumstance that several important propositions were capable of being torn from their original setting and placed in new connexions. In Scotus Erigena, at the beginning of the Scholastic era, there is no such subordination contemplated, because philosophy and theology in his work are in implicit unity. The university provides instruction and grants degrees in arts, law, medicine, science and engineering; instruction in theology, however, is given, not by the university, but by the different affiliated colleges. 73. Later he spent some time in the schools of London, which enjoyed at that time a high reputation, and finally studied theology at Paris. The application of dialectic to theology was not new. In this sense it is not neutral and is not attempted from the perspective of removed observation—in contrast to a general history of religions. Cumont's interpretation of the main relief and its smaller companions involves the reconstruction of a Mithraic theology, a Mithraic legend, and a Mithraic symbolism. 2 a : a theological theory or system Thomist theology a theology of atonement. AUGUST HAHN (1792-1863), German Protestant theologian, was born on the 27th of March 1792 at Grossosterhausen near Eisleben, and studied theology at the university of Leipzig. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Systematic theology is an important tool in helping us to understand and teach the Bible in an organized manner. ‘a theology degree’. Yet it seems plain that any theology, maintaining redemption as historical fact (and not merely ideal), must attach religious importance to conclusions which are technically probable rather than proven. "Theology," he wrote to a friend, "I can bring myself to study no more. But he felt that his real vocation was philosophy, and after holding for a short time an extraordinary professorship of theology, he became professor of philosophy in 1855. Deists and orthodox in those days agreed in recognizing not merely natural theology but natural religion - " essential religion," Butler more than once styles it; the expression shows how near he stood intellectually to those he criticized. In that year he helped to found the Theologische Studien and Kritiken, the chief organ of the "mediation" theology (Vermittelungstheologie). In order to become a minister, the man studied theology at the seminary for many years. 1905), the ablest of the scholastic criticisms of the historical method by a highly influential French professor of theology, now many years in Rome; Quello the vogliamo (Rome, 1907, Eng. In the Middle Ages, philosophy and theology were inextricable. Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, pp. There taught in theology Guillaume Feuguieres or Feuguereius (d. The Reformed strengthened itself against the Roman Catholic theology by working itself, on the one hand, into vigorous logical consistency, and supporting itself, on the other, on the supreme authority of the Scriptures. iii.). cuvcs dealt with natural science, the P ecorrovcKa with agriculture, and `Iepo,uvi bF twv with theology. The theology of the Indian Syrian Christians is of a Nestorian type, and Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) puts us on the right track when he says that the Christians whom he found in Ceylon and Malabar had come from Persia (probably as refugees from persecution, like the Huguenots in England and the Pilgrim Fathers in America). The contact of Jewish theology with Greek speculation became the great problem of thought. In theology Collier was an adherent of the High Church party, though his views were by no means orthodox. Developments of Thomist ideas ) expect under the Rev in modern theology ( 1841-1854 ) Congregationalist ] in! 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