In 1878, he outlined what became known as the ‘pragmatic maxim’, a rule for clarifying the content of concepts and hypothesis by tracing their practical consequences and thereby, grounding inquiry in issues of human significance (Peirce, 1878). The pragmatic paradigm originated in the United States in the late 19th century. By analysing the data across the sample NGOs, it was found that many of the established and documented practices were rarely mentioned in the context of discussions on usefulness. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves as in competition with each other. For most doctoral projects, the research design stage involves significant decision-making around establishing the research objective, framing the research problem and choosing a methodology. Pragmatists believe that there cannot be a single reality but multiple realities. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. This article highlights three principles of pragmatism from the literature and demonstrates application of these at each step of the research process using examples from the authors’ qualitative doctoral projects. Latter day pragmatists also emphasize the importance of acting on problems in the ‘real world’ (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2003; Rorty et al., 2004). Pragmatism as a philosophical movement originated in the 1870s by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914). Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. By building in scope to explore the diverse experiences of different individuals at the level of the research questions, we were able to identify more facets of the research problem than if these were solely framed around the theoretical literature, formal NGO documentation or our existing understanding of NGO processes. At each stage of the research process, we interrogated and evaluative our ideas and interpretations in terms of their practical functioning. The guiding pragmatist principles are also informing the researchers’ ongoing dissemination strategy and driving an enthusiasm for utilization of the study’s findings. Pragmatism guides the project examples used in this article. In addition to identifying and including new evidence, the field notes also captured elements of the discourse that NGOs were excluding. This paradigm is associated with action, intervention and constructive knowledge. Grounding these research project examples in pragmatism provides a number of benefits as explicated above. Epistemologically, pragmatism is premised on the idea that research can steer clear of metaphysical debates about the nature of truth and reality and focus instead on ‘practical understandings’ of concrete, real-world issues (Patton, 2005: 153). Yet, the pragmatic paradigm implies that the overall approach to research is that of mixing data collection methods and data analysis procedures within the research process (Creswell, 2003). This principle also enabled us to combine macro- and micro-level perspectives within the case study organizations and encouraged a more inclusive research process as different stakeholders were able to situate themselves and their actions within a larger context. Pragm… Instead, it provides a framework to help researchers choose which methods will be most appropriate. In really simple terms, the three most common paradigms are explained below (and are shown in this epistemology diagram too, taken from here ): Positivists believe that there is a single reality, which can be measured and known, and therefore they are more likely to use quantitative methods to measure and this reality. Pragmatism is a paradigm that includes ideas, methods, approaches, principals, or a mix of these to explain a solution to a research problem. Advocates of the so-called pragmatic approach to research have over emphasized its practicability in combining diverse For James, the pragmatic maxim was a window into the way people think, formulate ideas, experiment and construct new habits (Ormerod, 2006). discussion of the appropriateness of pragmatism as a paradigm for conducting BAR. According to Dewey (2008 [1910]), all conscious human actions involve some amount of inquiry or assessment in response to a problem or obstacle.  =  The paradigm wars between these approaches often encouraged the application of rigid methodological frameworks and the temptation of creating ‘one size fits all’ epistemological solutions. Thirdly is the mixed methods approach associated with the pragmatic paradigm and strategies that involve collecting data in a simultaneous or sequential manner using methods that are drawn from both quantitative and qualitative traditions in a fashion that best addresses the research … In the 20th century the pragmatic paradigm gave birth to neopragmatism. At the design state, this principle enabled us to unpack the research problem and identify elements of the problem that were the most relevant. Throughout the history of pragmatism this approach went through ups and downs. Incorporating a follow-up survey to explore the informal practices of NGO staff, and monitoring the extent to which these were changing over the course of the research, allowed this project to frame the research problems in ways that would remain relevant even as contexts evolved: a key benefit of pragmatist research (Feilzer, 2010). The processes under investigation, while tangible activities, have variable qualities once implemented. Qualitative research paradigm was dominated by the constructivist approach to solve the problems. Methodologically, the implication is that researchers are better equipped to deal with complex, dynamic organizational processes where action, even if carefully planned, can have varied spatial or temporal qualities. Elements of the data collection stage where we found it valuable to use pragmatist ideas to guide research choices included the scope and sequence of data collection methods, the researchers’ stance and ethical considerations for data collection. Evidence-Based Social Work Theory and Practice: Historical and Reflective Perspective. research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Login failed. In Project example 2, a survey provided additional data to validate initial interviews with managers and better scope the challenges experienced by project implementers. “Paradigm lost and pragmatism regained”. This iterative prioritization process was important for respondents but also important for enhancing the relevance and potential transferability of the research findings, an important aspect of pragmatism (Kelly, 2019c; Morgan, 2007). pragmatism that do not engage in social action or research. For us, using pragmatism to underpin our research has strengthened its ability to capture elements of practice that are important to NGOs and their staff, turning practice-based evidence into theory. According to pragmatism there cannot be one way to solve a problem but a mix of approach can better help solve a problem and find the truth. This discussion links to practice through reflexive and critical analysis of how each of these steps evolved in the two project examples. The other significant progress that pragmatism made is the possibility of inter-subjectivity in social science research. This mixed m… Pragmatist epistemology with its emphasis on the interconnectedness of experience, knowing and acting (a key principle), enabled the sequencing of different data collection methods. Qualitative research is often associated with interpretivism, but alternatives do exist. The principles are drawn from existing literature and similar categorizations of pragmatist methodology developed by theorists such as Friedrichs and Kratochwil (2009) and Morgan (2014b). Realism, constructionism and pragmatism paradigms have been applied widely for qualitative research. Pragmatics recognise that there are many different ways of interpreting the world and undertaking research, that no single point of view can ever give the entire picture and that there may be multiple realities[1] According to pragmatism research philosophy, research question is the most important determinant of the research philosophy. Whereas structural models, which are also popular with organizational theorists, provide for a more static view of organizational life. In social science research, Pragmatic Paradigm was proposed as a philosophical basis for mixed methods research, supporting a third option to qualitative and quantitative methods dichotomy. Although pragmatist researchers are sometimes criticized for over emphasizing the practical, in fact, pragmatism enables researchers to overcome the dichotomy between theory and action and give voice to those impacted by organizational process (McKenna et al., 2011). Pragmatic inquiry recognizes that individuals within social settings (including organizations) can experience action and change differently, and this encourages them to be flexible in their investigative techniques (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005). Qualitative research has been widely accepted in all disciplines for academic as well as non-academic reasons. In Project example 2, additional practitioners’ views were needed to interrogate NGO decision-making processes in terms of their practical functioning. Until the birth of the pragmatic paradigm it was believed that qualitative research cannot be combined with quantitative approach. The sub-headings are set out in a linear fashion, despite the research processes being iterative and more complex than this reductive layout would suggest. Therefore, this research paradigm would suggest a mixed-method approach to research. This survey focused on practitioners’ experiences of NGO performance measurement processes and decision-making processes, enabling comparison with formal documentation, as well as the views of NGO leaders and boards. The pragmatists believe that there is a single real world but different people can have different views about that real world. Both doctoral projects examine organizational processes related to performance measurement and evaluation in smaller sized NGOs that deliver international and community development programmes. The lack of a clearly articulated logic to guide determination of ‘what works’, such as who decides what knowledge is legitimate or useful, has also met with censure (Hesse-Biber, 2015; Teddlie and Tashakkori, 2003). A paradigm is essentially a worldview, a whole framework of beliefs, values and methods within which research takes place. For Project example 2, this meant having a balance of NGO leaders and operating staff respondents as this research on decision-making processes required that perspectives of decision-makers were juxtaposed and interrogated by implementing staff – an example of the macro-micro linkages that pragmatism helps establish. This included executives, board members, programme implementing staff and volunteers. 2009). In both projects, pragmatism necessitated a reflexive stance at all stages of data collection as respondent perspectives were being shaped by the inquiry processes itself. Leave a comment Pragmatism can be more suitable than other major philosophical approaches to probe this ‘inner world’ of organizational processes as first, it emphasizes that knowledge is based on experience; and second, it encourages the researchers to analyse organizational practices through experience as well as action. This involves collecting pertinent observations about the study phenomenon and, at the same time, applying concepts from existing fields of knowledge, instead of either relying solely on abstract concepts (deduction) or developing propositions based solely on observations (induction). Morgan, D. L. (January 2007). Instead, he views research as a form of inquiry that is performed more carefully and more self-consciously than most other human responses to problematic situations to the external environment (Dewey, 2008 [1910]). International Business Research; Vol. Both type of research cannot be solved using one paradigm. The emphasis on useful, practice-based knowledge is particularly relevant in shaping the scope of academic research agendas in applied fields such as international and community development. Classical pragmatists were concerned with knowledge and forms of knowing that had practical consequences. The process of qualitative research is inductive in that the researcher builds abstractions, concepts, hypotheses, and theories from details. In recent years it has been observed that pragmatic paradigm is the most suitable paradigm to be used in social science research. Ethically, the challenge was to value all different types of knowledge. Pragmatism’s inherent focus on experience and action helped refine the research problems under investigation. pragmatism as a paradigm for social research Uncategorized December 5, 2020 0 Comment As noted by Farjoun et al. ORCID iDLeanne M Kelly https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3360-5212. The first section introduces the core principles of pragmatism, along with the stance that experiences cannot be separated from the social contexts in which they occur. May 15, 2019 Thus, it was through Dewey’s work that the classical pragmatism movement reached its peak and came to be applied in all areas of philosophy as well as in psychology, education and politics (Morgan, 2014b). IN this chapter we analyze four paradigms that currently are competing, or have until recently com-peted, for acceptance as the paradigm of choice in informing and guiding inquiry, especially qualitative inquiry: positivism, postpositivism, critical theory under investigation, critical theory, constructivist and participatory paradigms, use interpretive perspectives of theory. Copyright © 2010 ResarchArticles.com | All rights reserved. This is strengthened through presentation and analysis of three methodological principles of pragmatism, used as a framework to detail the project examples. Besides critical research and sometimes positivism, qualitative research in information systems can be performed following a paradigm of pragmatism. The first section introduces the core principles of pragmatism, along with the stance that experiences cannot be separated from the social contexts in which they occur. Simultaneously, this approach highlighted the multiple interpretations of organizational realities experienced by practitioners within these NGOs. In pragmatist research, this flexible and adaptive form of data collection and analysis is referred to as abduction. The originators and contributors that are associated with the early development of pragmatic paradigm include, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) and William James (1842–1910). As Project example 1 focuses on small NGOs, a different approach is being taken to share the findings directly with these organizations. qualitative methodology, including qualitative research paradigms (Ponterotto, 2005a), data collec­ ... have added a pragmatic paradigm. Finally, the understanding of inquiry as an experiential process clarified our roles as researchers. 33. Understanding this interconnectedness was enriched in Project example 1 through the cultivation of ongoing relationships with respondents. Through our inquiry, we have narrowed down our selection to three principles of critical relevance to research on organizational processes. The engagement of respondents and the experiential nature of the inquiry process enabled the researchers to address this critique. Lean Library can solve it. This gained a lot of importance and prominence. In both research scenarios, the choice of methods was driven by initial scoping of the research question using the principles of pragmatism as a guide. This is done to make BAR researchers aware of some of the recent writings about pragmatism in the mixed methods research literature (e.g. This meant that the order, dose and duration of data collection among the different case study NGOs could adapt according to NGO requirements without disadvantaging the study’s trustworthiness. 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