JETPROP- LLC: JETPROP DLXAmong one of the stronger programs on the market- the JetPROP DLX is well along in its second decade of service- with more than 240 of this conversion delivered as of September 2009. Engines used were Rolls-Royce Mk. The TBM900’s allowable CG range varies by 24 centimetres. But whatever the decision- the added load must also work within the weight-and-balance envelope. And that per-hour basis should be nicely offset to a per-mile degree by the higher true airspeeds available. Power loading is the aeroplane’s thrust divided by its weight. 1. Maintenance, including airframe, engine and APU, is estimated to cost $447.55 per hour. THE TRENDSETTERAn early target of propjet conversions back in the 1960s – when turboprop engines were coming of age – was an aircraft plentiful and well-regarded: the Douglas DC-3- arguably the world’s first successful airliner and a backbone machine for ops from Normandy to the Outback. In fact- its full-fuel payload compares well with the TBM 700. Both the JetPROP and Piper turboprops employ the wildly popular PT6A turboprop engine from Pratt & Whitney Canada: the DLX got the PT6A-35 flat rated to 560shp; for the Meridian it’s the PT6A-42 flat rated to 500shp. In some instances- converting to a different brand engine or to a different type provides the same benefits. As the aeroplane climbs and power output decreases, you may be able to advance the power lever to maintain or even increase power in climb, as long as the engine stays within all three of its limits. Turboprops come in two basic designs: fixed shaft and free turbine. 1979 Cessna 182Q, 2800TT, Full Restoration In 2015, 200 Hours Since. The conversion installs a Pratt & Whitney PT-6A turbine engine and a Hartzell four-bladed reversible propeller. A piston engine’s ignition system operates the entire time the engine is running, providing spark to the cylinders. By using our site, you consent to our use of cookies. Six aircraft were converted by Napier for Allegheny Airlines. Finally- the time to overhaul for piston aircraft generally comes far earlier than in turbine engines- adding a significant attraction to the appeal of turbine engines. It’s been said that everything about flying light aeroplanes applies to heavier ones, but not everything about heavy aeroplanes applies to lighter ones. In this process- the package must usually show that it first does no harm- or introduces no negative issues into the aircraft’s use. Exceeding torque engine speed or temperature limits for even a few seconds can be catastrophic to the engine. Both types of pressure-aspiration enhancements show up in piston aircraft across the years. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. It operates at much higher temperatures, and the turbine spins as fast as 45,000 rpm, so a turboprop engine must be constructed of extremely heat-resistant metals and be very well balanced to handle rotational forces. While not something widely embraced- the customer-base has proven large enough over the years to support some long-term programs. Let’s look at the variables to get at least a basic idea of the differences. At first you might think the added power of a turboprop means you can get away with a little sloppiness, especially during take-off and landing. Turboprops have strict operating limits of torque, internal temperature and rotational speed. Higher altitude equals lower power. JetPROP got its DLX to market ahead of Piper’s launch of its turboprop remake of the Malibu (the Meridian) and they both compare closely in some areas. You’ll often have less of a margin for imprecision—you need to be right on speed and glidepath to land safely, and precisely on speed and attitude for take-off. The approach is almost as old as powered flight: improve a proven airframe by grafting on a better powerplant. Tradewind picked the highly regarded- light and compact Rolls-Royce Allison 250- flat-rated to 420 horsepower- and since the Bonanza lacks pressurization- Tradewind focused on providing a performance increase with the Rolls-Royce Allison due to it's low fuel consumption at non-pressurized altitudes. Location: belgium. Shorten block-time up to 25%. N46CS has 4650TT with 1850 since the Turbine Conversion 365 since HSI. Piston twins, he added, are capable but get a bad reputation. With that mastery you should be able to avoid accidents, right? That’s around 165 KIAS, depending on conversion. The problem that accompanies this idea stems from the fall-off in engine output as altitude increases. Everything you do (and are supposed to do) in piston aeroplanes—airspeed control, attitude control, rudder coordination, systems knowledge, checklist use—is even more important when you fly a SETP. AND THEN THERE’S APPROVAL…Finally- once the developer of such an upgrade feels the issues have been worked out satisfactorily- the revised airplane must emerge from the rigors of earning a Supplemental Type Certificate. Both engine types propel their airframes with greater fuel efficiency up high than down low. But typically the turbine engine makes far more power – particularly flying low – and doesn’t achieve its best economies until up high. What surprises me is no one appears to have done a turboprop conversion on the Aerostar, especially as almost all other high performance piston singles and twins have been 'done' Reply. For decades, the drumbeat has been steady—turbine airplanes are unobtainium as private aircraft. TurboProp / Cessna Page 1 ... For less money than you would pay for a big PISTON single you can have TURBINE reliability and PREFORMANCE, 200 Knots at 20,000 ft on 22 GPH. The condition lever controls engine speed and fuel flow. New Hartzell 3 Blade Prop 50 Hours Since Installed. At Aero Diesel Aviation Services we take pride in providing professional services and maintenance for our customers.Our staff and mechanics have over 150 years of experience . It’s the same thing. With their abundance of power, both airplanes are bucking against their respective redlines at lower altitudes. Unlike its singleengine kin- with full fuel the Royal Duke remains a genuine hauler- with 750 pounds of payload available. It’s for the combination of these factors- the complexity and expense- that many more have been attempted than have succeeded. However, the Duke has a problem – er – two problems. The CG range of the Cessna 208 Caravan, a true freight hauler, is 55.7 centimetres. A Colemill conversion is much more than an exchange for more powerful engines. Piston engine power is measured in horsepower (HP) and is determined by manifold pressure, propeller speed and fuel flow. In a turboprop engine, a turbine (jet) engine shaft is connected to a reduction gear box and propeller governor, which in turn governs propeller speed and operation. An issue piston and turbines also share involves fuel efficiency. You have entered an incorrect email address! In aviation- the quest never ends to make airplanes better- more efficient- more capable- and always faster. In contrast- the Bonanza makes its 170-knot best speed at about 7-500 feet- and by 13-000 the speed available is off by more than 30 or more knots. In a turboprop you are still a pilot, but you are just as much a systems manager. By comparison- the Bonanza with its piston engine can cover only about 730 nautical miles in the same time needed by the Tradewind-converted Bonanza to fly 900. For example- climbing to the Tradewind Bonanza’s optimal altitude will take the Bonanza more than 15 minutes- while the converted airplane needs less than five. The 36 Model Bonanza introduced in the late 1960s is the foundation for the Tradewind conversion. 12 built as new-builds by Canadair for RCAF as CC-109 in 1960 for £436,000 per-aircraft. The power lever adjusts torque and propeller speed. © Copyright Civil Aviation Safety Authority Australia, Single and loving it: making the turboprop transition. A turbopropeller engine (turboprop) is similar to the piston engines with which you’re likely familiar, in that both types are internal combustion engines. Turbine engines suffer from the same power-loss phenomenon- but because of how they work they continue to provide strong power to altitudes that let them eke out the maximum in speed while driving the airplane. And while the more-powerful engine may offer the ability to lift more- a higher operating weight can introduce issues into the capacity of the landing gear- wings and other airframe structures. Going to turboprop from piston involves some interesting balancing acts because of different aspects of the engine going in and the engine coming out. This permits you to direct thrust forward, instead of rearward, to dramatically shorten landing distances. Fillipini counters, “For trips under 500 miles or to access to runways not accessible to jets, a turboprop or piston aircraft is often the preferable and sometimes the only option.” He notes, “For these short hops, the speed advantage of a jet is nullified by the fact that the aircraft doesn’t spend much time at cruising altitude. Cost for the conversions was £160,000 per-aircraft. Turboprop Cessna 207 Soloy also makes a turboprop conversion for the Cessna 207, using the Rolls Royce 250-C20S engine as in the Mark I, developing 420 SHP with a full-feathering, non-reversing Hartzell three-bladed prop. Weight and centre of gravity range. Ice protection, electrical inverters, and in many cases pressurisation—you’ll need to spend time ‘in the book’ learning how each system operates in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Complete Strip and Paint, 3 Stage Pearl Paint. So let’s compare and (primarily) contrast piston-engine and turboprop engines. An aeroplane with a wide range of allowable CGs will have changes in performance and handling depending on how it is loaded. From 1970 to 1984, Frakes converted 8 Mallards while in Texas. A turbine conversion also comes with less range, less useful load and turbine efficiency only at 25k ft. Means: anything less you will have to buy with less speed and higher fuel consumption. He later purchased the type certificate for the Mallard and incorporated the turbine STC into the type certification. Add them together and you odds for … Beechcraft’s goal was to make the Duke perform, so they incorporated the biggest piston engines they could find, selecting the 380 horsepower Lycoming TIO-541. During engine start you must watch for a ‘hot start’ condition, that is, exceeding temperature limits, and immediately shut down the engine if it overtemps (the term is the same, but this is completely unrelated to ‘hot starts’ in fuel injected, piston engines). More information from www.royalturbine.com. Fixed shaft turboprops, in which the propeller is directly connected to the engine and rotates any time the engine is running, use a power lever (sometimes called thrust lever) and a condition lever. Single turboprop. Leaning is not required in any turboprop engine, but is controlled automatically when the pilot sets the power lever. Pilatus publishes the CG range of the PC-12 in terms of percent of mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)—the average distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing. Turbine engines are remarkably compact and lightweight compared to piston mills. Northwest Turbine- a relative of JetPROP- LLC- did for the Duke what its corporate cousin did for the Malibu: give it the benefits inherent in a turbine engine. Compare that to the Malibu’s 350 maximum horsepower- which drops about 20 percent at cruise altitude. Familiar piston aeroplanes have fairly narrow CG ranges. You'll find economy cruise power settings commonly at and below 65% of total power in piston airplanes. Rocket Engineering’s most popular mod is the JetProp DLX conversion of the Piper Malibu and Mirage, which replaces the piston engine with a Pratt & Whitney PT6. New cowls- streamlined exhaust stacks- engine instrumentation- and other modifications give the converted Royal Duke significant performance potential: 292 knots true burning 67gph fuel at FL270. THE CONSIDERATIONSFor decades back- aircraft engineers and designers recognized that putting aircraft in higher- thinner air offered the potential to fly faster. Once a turbine engine starts, the igniters are turned off; ignition is constant as air and fuel are continually fed to the engine and the fire continually burns. It’s the only twin-engine turboprop on this list, so it burns more fuel than the others at 101.7 gallons per hour, which, at $5 per gallon, is $508.50 per hour. Over successive generations of conversions- the DC-3 and its military variant- the C- 47- received new leases on life- thanks to the improved performance available: Higher speed- greater lift- better runway performance – all the points that hold appeal for pilots and operators- particularly those operating in remote areas where aviation gasoline remains rare to non-existent even today. Performance with the 250 turboprop engine marks a dramatic break from that of the piston-powered Bonanza. 3. For more information view our updated Privacy & Cookie Policies. All turboprops are more efficient above 10,000 feet. Some jet thrust is also produced by exhaust leaving the turboprop engine. It spins turbines that in turn drive gears spinning the propeller (to generate thrust) and the engine’s compressors (for combustion). Runway performance improves dramatically as you’d expect from the higher climb performance- and the speed difference and range potential both improve greatly- as well. The total conversion cost depends on the engine selected- with the PT6A-21 coming in about $100-000 less – and giving a Duke devotee the potential to own a turboprop twin that’s not a King Air for about $1.1 million... with new engines- props- cowls- support systems and engine instruments. Single-engine turboprops put a dent in that theory starting in the 1980s with the introduction of the TBM series and Piper’s Meridian in 2000. When transitioning, then, you’ll need to become comfortable and capable in a medium- to high-altitude environment. Nope, only corporations and the well-to-do can burn Jet A. Several companies tackled such conversions over the years- among them Bassler in Oshkosh- Wisconsin- and Conroy Aircraft in Santa Barbara- California. The Tradewind Bonanza turns in 220 knots true at 15-000 feet- with range potential out to 900 nautical miles. A turbine engine compresses air, but the amount of compression is usually fixed. The Meridian received far more rework en route to its transition from the Malibu – even though they are quite similar in appearance. Sometimes it is also called a prop-jet. Turbine Bonanzas suffer from limited payloads because of the extra fuel required to feed the turboprop; with full … The PC-12’s CG range is from 27% to 44% of the MAC. The advantage at altitude is what gives turboprops such appeal. Original designed and built during the WWII era and equipped with radial engines, it was converted to turboprops some 40 years ago . Free turbine engines have three engine controls: the power lever, setting pressure or torque output; a propeller RPM control, adjusting propeller speed (generally much slower than piston propeller speeds, usually 1500 to 1900 RPM); and a condition lever that is basically on ON/OFF control for the fuel. But there are significant differences in the way you’ll fly a turboprop—and only some of them are related to the engine itself. Higher wing loading increases stability and reduces the impact of turbulence, but it often also results in higher stick forces—the aeroplane ‘feels’ heavy, and it takes more effort to manoeuver. As we’ll see near the end of this article, despite their famed engine reliability, you still need to be ready for engine failures in turboprops. Interestingly- the difference in fuel consumed by the piston original making 235 knots and the Royal conversion’s best cruise amounts to a mere 10gph. Wing loading is the weight carried by its wing area. JetPROP- LLC developed the DLX around the long-running Piper Malibu/Mirage- sporting a 350-horsepower piston engine with dual turbochargers- providing breathing for its high-altitude abilities and cabin pressurization. During the take-off roll and climb, you must carefully watch the torque gauges, engine speed and temperature gauges, and advance the power lever only until reaching the maximum permissible amount on any one indicator. High altitude or low, it’s vital you fly the aeroplane precisely. The base airframe converted provides the main foundation for the success of the JetPROP DLX: a strong single with a pressurized cabin. What this means is converting to a turbine from a piston with equal horsepower requires carriage and use of more fuel – in the 20 percent range- horsepower-for-horsepower. For the pilot without a Malibu- the cost can vary and still beat those of a new Meridian by several hundred thousand dollars – though the panel of a new Meridian may have the JetPROP devotee thinking about spending some more to gain similar technology and capabilities on top of the basic DLX package. For business turboprops- upgrading offers a path to such outcomes and better value than sticking with the old engines- as we have been outlining recently. Video: Field of dreams: Daher TBM’s latest  SETPs, the TBM 930 and 910 at Oshkosh, in the US. Congratulations! Almost all turboprops have a reversible-pitch propeller. Here are some of the other considerations: Most piston aircraft systems are incredibly simple by comparison to SETPs. And the ones to succeed and build a market generally enjoy strong- loyal followings from their customers. A problem for them is the maintenance involved and the excess temperatures produced by the act of compressing the air. TRADEWIND TURBINES: TRADEWIND BONANZAThe honors for longest production run for a civilian airplane go to the Hawker Beechcraft Bonanza- which started life as the Model 35 in 1947. You might think that, understanding the operation of a turboprop powerplant, that you’ll know what you need to safely fly a SETP. Second- turbine engines produce their work differently and tend to need more fuel per horsepower because of how the engines work. In aviation- the quest never ends to make airplanes better- more efficient- more capable- and always faster. Performance achieved with a Rolls-Royce Turboprop Engine conversion by Soloy Aviation. Since then, Rocket has shifted to turbine conversions, realizing that avgas for piston engines may someday become extinct. You’ll need to use most of the skills you’ve developed as a pilot of a piston-engine aeroplane. If that allowable range is great, even within limits, there will be notable differences in the way the aeroplane flies. The reality is that even flown precisely, turboprops typically use more runway than piston aeroplanes. In 2002, Conrad and Sadler launched into a development program to replace everything from the firewall forward on the prototype Duke. More information from www.tradewind-bonanza.com. Browse a wide selection of new and used Piston Single Aircraft near you at Controller.com. It needs about 2-550 feet of take-off space to clear a 50-foot obstacle and climbs at about 1-200 fpm. The JetPROP offers about 360 pounds to the Malibu’s 598 pounds- with much of the difference due to the higher fuel capacity of the turboprop - 151 gallons versus 120 for the Malibu. The higher the wing loading the higher the stall speed. Sign up for free aircraft sales alerts and digital aviation magazines now. It was successes like those with the DC-3 that helped inspire developers to design turboprop conversions for a wide range of airframes with strong appeal to the owner-pilot business aviator. - Airfleet Capital Finance Offer - US only. You’re about to transition into a single-engine turboprop (SETP). Neither the Malibu nor the JetPROP DLX win any contests for the full-fuel payload needed to cover their 1-000-mile maximum leg. The new IO-550A engines improve single-engine service ceilings as well as improved rate-of-climb and cruise airspeed. Unlike piston aeroplanes, in which ‘full throttle’ is almost universally correct for take-off, in turboprops it is almost never appropriate to push the power lever to the forward stop. As one measure of the quantum leap in complexity, count the circuit breakers in even a pressurised piston twin, and compare that to the number in a SETP. The higher the power-to-weight ratio, the faster the aeroplane will accelerate, climb and cruise. combined on air frames such as Cessna Citations, Piper Meridians, Beechcraft King Airs, Mitsubishi 400A, Lear Jets, Piper Cheyennes, Daher Kodiaks, Pilatus, and more.. We are an FAA Part 145 Certified Repair Station. The reality, however, is that knowing how the engine works is a small part of flying a turboprop. There are limits on reverse thrust, so you’ll have to use this capability carefully. Hp ) and is determined by manifold pressure, propeller RPM, and fuel flow type! 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