Xuan, “Water-soluble constituents of the root barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla (Chinese drug Qinpi),”, J.-H. Jiang, C.-M. Jin, Y.-C. Kim, H.-S. Kim, W.-C. Park, and H. Park, “Anti-toxoplasmosis effects of oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhychophylla,”, M. H. Kim, J. Min, J. Y. Lee et al., “Oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla inhibits glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction,”, Y.-C. Tien, J.-C. Liao, C.-S. Chiu et al., “Esculetin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-mediated hepatic apoptosis in rats,”, R. A. Macahig, L. Harinantenaina, K. Matsunami, H. Otsuka, Y. Takeda, and T. Shinzato, “Secoiridoid and iridoid glucosides from the leaves of Fraxinus griffithii,”, S. Lin, M. T. Liu, S. J. Wang et al., “Coumarins from branch of Fraxinus sieboldiana and their antioxidative activity,”, S. Lin, S. Wang, M. Liu et al., “Glycosides from the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana,”, H. J. Kim, Y. G. Yu, H. Park, and Y. S. Lee, “HIV gp41 binding phenolic components from Fraxinus sieboldiana var. Fraxinus, a member in the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree [22] is found in various regions of world such as in western and eastern France [23], north American [24], north east Asia [25], China [26], north Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Morocco, and Algeria. Natural antimicrobial products are inexpensive and they have a potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems [93]. É uma árvore de solos frescos e profundos, de porte médio, que pode atingir cerca de 25 … Abnobaviscum F extract specifically targets Mcl-1 at mRNA stage thus contributing to the activation of intrinsic caspase pathway. In Norse mythology, ash was the 'Tree of Life' and the first man on Earth was said to … People take ash for fever , arthritis , gout , constipation , fluid retention, and bladder problems. [16][17][18][19]. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. Cholinesterase inhibitor, galanthamine, as neuroprotective agent in Alzheimer’s disease was firstly isolated from Galanthus nivalis L. [19]. One such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use… Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m3 for Fraxinus americana,[30] and higher at 710 kg/m3 for Fraxinus excelsior[31]), tough and very strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats, hurleys, and other uses demanding high strength and resilience. Glucevia, an effective Fraxinus excelsior herbal extract that competently balances fructosamine and blood glucose concentrations, significantly augmented adiponectin-leptin ratio in obese and overweight older rats via oral administration of Glucevia immediately after sugar rich meals [104, 105]. [27] At the end of October 2012 in the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) reported that ash dieback had been discovered in mature woodland in Suffolk; previous occurrences had been on young trees imported from Europe. Interpreting Wetland Status. Genus Fraxinus are medium-sized to large, mostly deciduous trees with attractive pinnate leaves, sometimes conspicuous flowers and autumn colour, and distinctive winged fruits . He, G.-Y. The bark and leaf are used to make medicine. Fraxinus plant derivative analogs along with pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may also strengthen future advances. Most of the available scientific literature has limited information about treatment duration, relevant doses, storage conditions, and controls for the assessment of bioefficacy of active components in plant extract arousing the need for further investigations. Gundermann and J. Müller, “Phytodolor®—effects and efficacy of a herbal medicine,”, N.-Y. The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia, and North America.[3][5][6][7][8]. Phytochemicals obtained from medicinal plants, herbs, seeds, and fruits such as phenolic compounds (terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids) have shown promising effects in suppressing proliferation and thus are anticarcinogenic [62]. It was also widely used by early aviation pioneers for aircraft construction. Synthetic drugs have limited clinical utility as they are invariably associated with several toxic effects and drawbacks such as poor pharmacodynamic properties and nonselectivity [63]. Ash wood is very easy to bend. This includes the larvae of multiple long-horn beetles, as well as other insects including those in the genus Tropidosteptes, lace bugs, aphids, larvae of gall flies, and caterpillars. Author … All … B. Saba, O. M. Onakoya, and A. Copyright © 2017 Iqra Sarfraz et al. The detail of all the compiled knowledge about molecular targets of Fraxinus plant extracts is listed in Table 3. Stem bark, root bark, and leave extract of this plant have wide applications in traditional folk medicines since ancient times.Fraxinus plant derivative analogs along with pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may also strengthen future ad… Various in vitro and in vivo studies results have demonstrated its several applications in biological systems. Particularly well-cited examples of natural products obtained from medicinal plants that have become prominent in modern pharmacotherapy as anticancer agents, include vinblastine and vincristine from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), paclitaxel, and its derived compounds from Taxus species and camptothecin and its derivatives from Camptotheca acuminata Decne (Chinese tree) [5]. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images At low concentration (1–5 μM) it has direct protective effects and at higher concentration fraxetin activated the nuclear factor Nrf-2/ARE, which were linked with the increased activity of glutathione S-transferase-alpha and HO-1. Its bark was once used to treat fevers, its buds were used as a slimming aid in the UK, its leaves were used to treat gout, and its sap was used as a remedy for earache and warts. Artemisinin, a potential antimalarial agent, was initially derived from Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. [20]. The effect of long-term intake of different doses (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day) of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Fraxetin showed protective activities against liver microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(+2) in rats with inhibitory rate of 60% at a concentration of 10(−6) mol × L(−1) [45]. A. Oyagbemi, “Hepatoprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of whole fruit of, W.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Tien, C.-Y. Furthermore, FR (EtOH) could cause inhibition of protein expression of uPA, TIMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in rats [81]. There is a need to identify the toxicological limits for certain organs like liver and kidney. Apr 10, 2016 - Health Benefits and Side Effects of European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the Therapeutic and Traditional Uses of the Leaves and Bark as a Medicinal Herb Details F. excelsior … see more; Family Oleaceae . R. Howes, N. S. L. Perry, and P. J. Houghton, “Plants with traditional uses and activities, relevant to the management of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders,”, S.-P. Kidney stones. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Yang, M.-H. Zhu, and Y.-P. Li, “Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method,”, T. Younis, M. R. Khan, M. Sajid, M. Majid, Z. Zahra, and N. A. Shah, “Fraxinus xanthoxyloides leaves reduced the level of inflammatory mediators during in vitro and in vivo studies,”, I. Kostova and T. Iossifova, “Chemical components of Fraxinus species,”, C. Liang, W. Ju, S. Pei, Y. Tang, and Y. Xiao, “Pharmacological activities and synthesis of esculetin and its derivatives: a mini-review,”, K. Moulaoui, C. Caddeo, M. L. Manca et al., “Identification and nanoentrapment of polyphenolic phytocomplex from Fraxinus angustifolia: In vitro and in vivo wound healing potential,”, F. Montó, C. Arce, M. A. Noguera et al., “Action of an extract from the seeds of Fraxinus excelsior L. on metabolic disorders in hypertensive and obese animal models,”, N. Bai, K. He, A. Ibarra et al., “Iridoids from Fraxinus excelsior with adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory and PPAR, M. Maghrani, N.-A. Rutin isolated from Fraxinus angustifolia have notable radical scavenging activity via inhibition of ethane release from Fenton-type oxidants induced 1-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMB) and inhibition of nitrogen monoxide (NO) release from hydroxylamine [82]. Zeggwagh, M. Haloui, and J.-B. Researchers have described a wide variety of plant extracts that have hepatoprotective activities usually associated with antioxidant activity as excessive production of free radicals overpowers the natural protective system causing hepatic damage [78–80]. Oral administration of ethanolic extract from Fraxinus rhynchophylla [FR (EtOH)] against CCl4 induced hepatic fibrosis resulted in protective effects by its free radical scavenging ability against hepatocellular fibrosis in rats. Esculetin, esculin, fraxin, and fraxetin are some of the pharmacologically active components isolated from different species of Fraxinus plant (Figure 2). It is also used as a tonic. Among them, 49% of anticancer drugs belong to natural products [6, 7]. Its robust structure, good looks, and flexibility combine to make ash ideal for staircases. Wetland Status. Latin name: Fraxinus excelsior Family: Oleaceae (Olive Family) Medicinal use of Ash: The leaves are astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative. Michel, “Fraxinus excelsior L. evokes a hypotensive action in normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats,”, N. K. Kaushik, A. Bagavan, A. Common Ash1 Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2 INTRODUCTION Common Ash is a broad, spreading, deciduous tree, capable of … A short review. The B & B Fraxinus Excelsior offers you the opportunity to spend a pleasant stay in Monferrato with the comforts and warmth of home. (EC50 = 139 mg/ml) [41]. It is therefore the material of choice to make bows.Tennis rackets, and the long poles used … Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Fraxinus excelsior é uma espécie de árvores da família das Oleaceae, conhecida pelo nome comum de freixo. Zou, S. Lin, J.-G. Shi, and H.-B. Traditionally, plant based drugs and medicinal plants have been employed for the treatment of humans and livestock in Pakistan and these medicinal plants play a valuable role in health care system in different areas of Pakistan [21]. Research is being conducted to determine if three native Asian wasps that are natural predators of EAB could be used as a biological control for the management of EAB populations in the United States. nov. associated with dieback of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Poland. Actaea spicata HPUS Ammonium phoshoricum HPUS Belladonna HPUS Colchicum autumnale HPUS Formicum acidum HPUS Fraxinus excelsior HPUS Ledum palustre HPUS Natrum … Fraxinus plant has been accounted for its wide spectrum of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticytotoxic, antiaging, antimicrobial, and antihypertensive (Figure 1). Many mammalian species from meadow voles eating the seeds, white-tailed deer eating the foliage, to silver-haired bats nesting, will also make use of ash trees. Results. [39]. Zhang, Y.-J. Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. F. rhynchophylla have remarkable inhibitory activity against neuronal cell damage induced by Abeta (25–35) by downregulating the activity and expression of caspase-3, reducing the cleaved PARP and DNA fragmentation with an effective concentration of 20 μM [90]. Even though inflammatory response varies among different diseases, principally diseased condition is linked with the production of prostaglandins which are formed from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. Forest Pathology 36(4), 264-270, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), "Systematics of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and evolution of dioecy", "The Phylogeny and Biogeographic History of Ashes ( Fraxinus, Oleaceae) Highlight the Roles of Migration and Vicariance in the Diversification of Temperate Trees", "Emerald Ash Borer - About Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)", http://www.emeraldashborer.info/documents/E-2943.pdf, https://emeraldashborerinsouthdakota.sd.gov/PDF/How-To-Identify-an-Ash-Tree-Infested-by-EAB_06-2001-2018.pdf, "First report of the ash dieback pathogen Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior in Austria", "Chalara fraxinea causing common ash dieback newly reported in Slovenia", SWAMP ASH Lumber Guide: 8/4 Lightweight Guitar Wood 2020, "美津和タイガー/野球博物館/バットのできるまで". GOUT SYMPTOM RELIEF- ammonium phosphoricum, belladonna, colchicum autumnale, formicum acidum, fraxinus excelsior, ledum palustre, natrum carbonicum, nux vomica, urtica urens liquid If this … The first record of sophisticated medicinal system from natural products dates back to 2600 BC in Mesopotamia, consisting of about 1000 medicines derived from botanical compounds and plant derivatives [5]. Additionally, macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins are decreased to 33.86, 48.96, and 55.74% [85]. From stem bark of Fraxinus plant that can act as potential antimicrobial agent seeds, popularly known as `` ''. Ash, in eastern North America also provide important habit and food for tadpoles! Traditional folk medicines since ancient times drugs like sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine arouse the need... Combine to make ash ideal for staircases its wood good looks, and leave extract Fraxinus. 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