J. Pers. (2000). Subsequent studies have demonstrated that the EEG spatial resolution can be improved using high-resolution EEG (high-density electrode arrays to increase spatial sampling) with surface Laplacian estimation and cortical imaging (details discussion of this area is beyond the scope of this review, see (Nunez et al., 1994) for theoretical and experimental study) or integrating multiple imaging modalities that provide complement information, for instance EEG-fMRI and EEG-fNIRS (Dale and Halgren, 2001). This is an example of an indirect influence on perception and attention that regulates selective sensory processing and behavioral determination (Vuilleumier, 2005). Neurosci. Psychol. Emot. More specifically, mild and acute stress facilitates learning and cognitive performance, while excess and chronic stress impairs learning and is detrimental to memory performance. Anger and embarrassment may make you particularly vulnerable to high-risk, low payoff choices. In other words, cognition is in the service of satisfying emotional and homeostatic needs. (2014). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. According to Panksepp and Solms (2012), key CNS emotional-affective processes are (1) Primary-process emotions; (2) Secondary-process learning and memory; and (3) Tertiary-process higher cognitive functions. Thus, evolution uses whatever sources for survival and procreative success. Moreover, differences in neural activation appeared in the left amygdaloid complex (AC) during encoding, while the right PFC and mPFC responded during recognition memory. An event-related fMRI study examined the neural correlates of responses to emotional pictures and words in which both were manipulated in terms of positive and negative valence, and where neutral emotional content served as a baseline (“conditioned stimuli”/no activating emotion with valence rating of 5 that spans between 1/negative valence-9/positive valence), even though all stimuli were consistent in terms of arousal levels (Kensinger and Schacter, 2006). Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: interaction with other brain systems. Philos. Neuroscience 118, 1099–1120. Stress 7, 221–231. Human memory strength is predicted by theta-frequency phase-locking of single neurons. (2005). This research work was supported by the HiCoE grant for CISIR (Ref No. (2017). Neurosci. Affect. 7, 415–423. The dorsal stream encompasses the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and lateral parietal cortex, which are involved in the cool system for active maintenance of controlled processes such as cognitive performance and the pursuit of goal-relevant information in working memory (WM) amidst interference. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal. Hunger stimulated increased rCBF uptake in multiple regions including the hypothalamus, insular cortex, limbic and paralimbic regions (anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal and hippocampal formation, the anterior temporal and posterior orbitofrontal cortex), as well as the thalamus, caudate, precuneus, putamen, and cerebellum. One study examined changes in EEG oscillations in the amygdala during the consolidation of emotionally aroused memory processing that exhibited theta (4–8 Hz) activity (Paré et al., 2002), indicating the facilitation of memory consolidation, improved retention of emotional content, and enhanced memory recall. One study used fNIRS to examine the relationship between subjective happiness and emotional changes (Oonishi et al., 2014). doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2004.03.010, Hamann, S., and Mao, H. (2002). Curr. It can be used to map the hemodynamic responses associated with brain activation. Furthermore, at the level of connections in the brain… Sci. J. Behav. doi: 10.1038/nrn2317, Phelps, E. A. Neural mechanisms underlying the reward-related enhancement of motivation when remembering episodic memories with high difficulty. Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. In other words, greater right alpha power (right frontal activation ↓) than left alpha power (left frontal activation ↑) results in left frontal activity and vice versa. Hence, emotional influences should be carefully considered in educational courses design to maximize learner engagement as well as improve learning and long-term retention of the material (Shen et al., 2009). Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affective information in words and pictures. doi: 10.1080/02699930701334302, Panksepp, J. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2016.05.005, Ozawa, S., Matsuda, G., and Hiraki, K. (2014). (2013). They say: “To understand our own emotions, as well as those of others, is crucial for human social interactions. Soc. Moreover, it is thought to act as a control center for selective attention (Squire et al., 2013), and also plays a critical role in WM as well as semantic processing, cognitive control, problem-solving, reasoning and emotional processing (Miller and Cohen, 2001; Yamasaki et al., 2002). doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.03.067, Erk, S., Kiefer, M., Grothe, J., Wunderlich, A. P., Spitzer, M., and Walter, H. (2003). Lett. Similarly, experimental studies have examined the phenomenon by using various attentional tasks, including filtering (dichotic listening and Stroop task), search (visual search), cuing (attentional probe, spatial cuing) and attentional blink [rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)] paradigms (Yiend, 2010). In order to evoke an array of emotions from the participants in the study, the team at MoMiLab showed them a movie popular for its emotional storyline. Electroencephalography obtains high temporal resolution in milliseconds, portable, less expensive, and non-invasive techniques by attaching scalp electrodes to record brain electrical activity. Structured event complexes in the medial prefrontal cortex support counterfactual representations for future planning. Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass. Natl. (1997). Adapted from Damasio and Carvalho (2013). Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: theory and applications in educational technologies. Learn. Curr. Prefrontal contributions to visual selective attention. This technology measures cerebral changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) vs. deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) using optodes (light emitters and detectors) placed on the scalp (Villringer et al., 1993). doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00236-8, Bradley, M. M., and Lang, P. J. J. Pers. 7, 1376–1380. Consistent findings were reported for recognition tasks investigated by fMRI where the left PFC-hippocampal network appeared to support successful memory encoding for neutral and negative non-arousing words. Individual differences in emotion processing. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2004.03.015, Plichta, M. M., Gerdes, A. This indicates increased attentional control of regulatory mechanisms that process emotional content. Science 304, 1167–1170. Moreover, a study using the RSVP paradigm compared healthy subjects with a group of patients with bilateral amygdala damage. Neurobiol. Because of inconsistencies of valence hypothesis and motivational direction hypothesis, a study proposed asymmetry inhibition model of alpha activity with two mechanisms of inhibitory executive control to regulate emotional distraction processing: (i) left PFC inhibits processing of negative/withdrawal-related distractors and (ii) right PFC inhibits processing of positive/approach-related distractors (Grimshaw and Carmel, 2014). Trends Cogn. J. Pers. Kleinginna, P. R. Jr., and Kleinginna, A. M. (1981). Sci. Rev. The results revealed a significantly greater increase in oxy-HB in the mPFC and left superior frontal gyrus in response to negative pictures compared with neutral pictures. B., Alpers, G., Harnisch, W., Brill, S., Wieser, M., et al. A troubled intestine can send signals to the brain, just as a troubled brain can send signals to the gut. This is reflected by the involvement of the DLPFC in WM and the role played by VLPFC in semantic processing, both of which have been found to enhance or impair semantic encoding task performance when emotion is involved. Am. How do we modulate our emotions? The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others’ emotions Bianca P. Acevedo1, Elaine N. Aron2, Arthur Aron2, Matthew-Donald Sangster3, Nancy Collins1 & Lucy L. Brown4 1Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 2Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, New York, New York A. R. ( 1992 ) and retention 24 August 2017 strong memories of emotionally salient information supports... Toni, I R. E., and Halgren, E. A., Bachorowski, J.-A., and,. Own emotional responses ( emotional primes ), Holmes, A., Halgren. 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